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Astronomy and Law

Unless there is a written agreement to the contrary, signed by both parties, a copyrighted work is owned by the author.  If the employer or the person the work was made is deemed the owner of the copyright, then it is considered a work made for hire.  It is EXTRMEMLY important for employees and consultants to understand the meaning of a “work for hire.”

Section 101 of the copyright law defines a “work made for hire” as:

  • A work prepared by an employee within the scope of his or her employment; or
  • A work specially ordered or commissioned for use as a contribution to a collective work, as a part of a motion picture or other audiovisual work, as
a translation, as a supplementary work, as a compilation, as an instructional text, as a test, as answer material for a test, or as an atlas, if the parties expressly agree in…

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Calls for a Narrative – Secret Weapon for a Runner

“Objection! Calls for a narrative!” During normal business hours, that is, during deposition, or, trial, that is how an attorney would normally respond to a question tailored to elicit an answer that narrates a series of occurrences, or, as we refer to it in plain English, a story. That is not the case for me on my long runs. In fact, on my long runs, especially those that take you up a ridiculously steep hill, like the one in Griffith Park that we call, “trash truck”, my secret weapon is that question that calls for a narrative. It is not uncommon that I can’t catch my breath and am struggling to keep up with the running veteran beside me, so, to avoid the feeling I hate the most, the one I get when I am holding someone up, I ask my running partner a question that calls for a narrative, and it sends them on a story, always a fascinating one, such as travelling to all forty-eight states in the U.S. on a motorcycle in a month. And what happens? My mind wanders away from those miserable blisters and aching muscles and I imagine myself riding carefree on a motorcycle. But, more importantly, my partners breathing pattern is affected, and I catch up (because they slow down); sneaky to you, but, to me, it is a symbiotic running relationship.